Sunday, November 17, 2019

Intercultural communication (Porter, Samovar, and Penington) Essay

Intercultural communication (Porter, Samovar, and Penington) - Essay Example It was a friendly dig at each other's culture. Culture is the way we live, the air we breathe, the thoughts we think, the clothes we put on, the glasses we wear and look through (Monippally 2001, p 44-45). Culture is what shapes our perception. It is defined as the complex system of values, traits, morals and customs shared by a society. From 1967 to 1973, while working at IBM as a psychologist, collected and analyzed data from over 100,000 individuals from 50 countries and 3 regions. From the initial results, Hofstede developed a model that identifies four primary dimensions to assist in differentiating cultures: Power Distance1, Individualism2, Masculinity3 and Uncertainty Avoidance4. Hofstede added a fifth Dimension after conducting an additional international study with a survey instrument developed with Chinese employees and managers. That dimension, based on Confucian dynamism, is Long-Term Orientation5 and was applied to 23 countries. These five Hofstede Dimensions can also be found to correlate with other country (See figure 1) and cultural paradigms (Geert Hofstede, 2003). people communicate varies widely between, and even within, cultures. One aspect of communication style is language usage. Across cultures, some words and phrases are used in different ways. For example, even in countries that share the English language, the meaning of "yes" varies from "maybe, I'll consider it" to "definitely so," with many shades in between. Another major aspect of communication style is the degree of importance given to non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication includes not only facial expressions and gestures; it also involves seating arrangements, personal distance, and sense of time. In addition, different norms regarding the appropriate degree of assertiveness in communicating can add to cultural misunderstandings. For instance, some white Americans typically consider raised voices to be a sign that a fight has begun, while some black, Jewish and Italian Americans often feel that an increase in volume is a sign of an exciting conversation among friend s. Thus, some white Americans may react with greater alarm to a loud discussion than would members of some American ethnic or non-white racial groups. 2. Different Attitudes Towards Conflict: Some cultures view conflict as a positive thing, while others view it as something to be avoided. In the U.S., conflict is not usually desirable; but people often are encouraged to

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